Thursday, February 11, 2010

Tipu Sultan

Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) was the eldest son of Haider Ali (حیدرعلی) and his mother’s name was Fakhr-un-Nissa (فخرالنسا‏‏‎ء), born on 20th November 1750 A.D. at Devanahalli. Haider Ali (حیدرعلی) named his son after a great Sufi saint namely Tipu Mastan Aulia (ٹیپومستان اولیاء)

Academic & Military Education
Haider Ali gave good education to his son Tipu Sultan ۔(ٹیپو سلطان)Right from his early years he was trained in the art of warfare He received military education from Ghazi-Khan who was a great warrior and also a military officer in the army of Haider Ali and at the age of 15 he used to accompany his father Haider Ali, (the ruler of Mysore میسور), to different military campaigns, participating in the wars that were fought by his father. Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) helped his father both in the First and the Second Mysore Wars. He was also a brave soldier and great general. In Addition, he also learnt different languages, He was well versed in Urdu (اردو) , Persian(فارسی), and Arabic (عربی)languages, mathematics and science. Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) had a fascination for learning. His personal library consisted of more than 2,000 books in different languages.

Ruler of Mysore
After the death of Haider Ali(حیدرعلی) , Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان)was enthroned as the ruler of Mysore (میسور) on 4th May 1783 A.D. in a simple ceremony at Bejnur (بجنور). He was an extremely active man and worked hard for the welfare of his subjects He continued the Second Mysore War (جنگ میسور – دوم) against the English. He defeated many English generals like Brithwhite & Col. Bailey in 1783.

The Mysore War
Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) attacked the Raja of Travancore (راجاتراوانکور) . In the first stage of the war (Third Mysore War جنگ میسور – سوم: 1790-92 A.D.) General Medows and General Kolly planned the course of action. Medows tried to reach Mysore through Coimbatore. Kolly was supposed to reach Bangalore through Baramahal District. But he died without achieving anything. Medows efforts were checked by Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) at Sathyamangalam and then he recaptured the places which were occupied by Medows. In the initial stages, Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) gained upper hand over the English. As long as the British fought alone, Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) always defeated them. But he could not come over their diplomacy, conspiracy and intrigue. Thus he was defeated in the Second half in his capital, Seringapatam, and was forced to sign a humiliating treaty on March 22, 1792. As a result he had to concede half of his kingdom and pay an indemnity of 33 million rupees to the British and their allies. Since he could not pay war indemnity in full, he accepted to send his second and third sons namely Abdul Khaliq and Maiz-Uddin aged 10 and 8 respectively as hostages till he would pay the war indemnity. He paid the balance amount after two years and received his sons in 1794 A.D. at Devanahalli.

His Efforts Towards Building Allies
Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) was a farsighted person who could foresee East India Company's design to get entrenched in sub-continent. After the Third Mysore war, Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) sent envoys to Persia, France and Afghanistan to seek help from them in fighting against the English. He contacted Napolean Bonaparte also. Though he accepted to help Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) against the English, he could not keep his word. He therefore negotiated with the Sultan of Turkey(ترکی) for help and also sought assistance from the Amir of Afghanistan (افغانستان).

The British were scared of Tipu's growing strength and after their defeat in 1783 they formed an alliance with the Nizam of Hyderabad and Marhattas. The French, however, deserted Tipu after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The alliance between the adversaries was soon broken and in 1795 the British, after defeating the Nizam, once again turned their attention towards Mysore. After the treaty at Seringapatam, Tipu Sultan did not waste his time and made extensive preparations against the British. He had rebuilt his war machine in the shortest possible time. The British regarded it as a violation of the treaty. This led to the start of the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1798 with the help of the Nizam.

Fight to Death
Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) retreated to his capital and continued fighting till he breathed his last on 4th May, 1799 A.D. Tipu Sultan was buried at a mausoleum that he himself had built, along with his father Haider Ali حیدرعلی and his mother Fatima Begum فاطمہ بیگم .

Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) was a great patriot and like his father realized the danger of letting the British becoming stronger. Although much of the period of his rule was given to war with the Marhattas, the Nizam and the British, he made his state secure and peaceful with benevolent rule. He was an enlightened ruler who treated his non-Muslim subjects generously. He built a chain of excellent roads and constructed tanks and dams to promote agriculture. He introduced new industries, promoted trade and commerce on a large scale. Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) prohibited the production and distribution of liquor and other intoxicants in Mysore (میسور). He also built and fortified numerous forts and many palaces, which were demolished by the British after his death. Bangalore Summer Palace still survives and is a remnant of his grand rule.

"The Quran requires you to say to people of scripture: We believe in that which has been revealed into us and revealed unto you; our God and your God is one and unto him we surrender. We hold this God-given law dear to our heart, based as it is on human dignity; reason and brotherhood of man. With reverence we have also read the Vedas of the Hindus. They proclaim their faith in universal unity and express the belief that God is one although He bears many names."
-- Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان) .

"Religious tolerance is the fundamental tenet of the Holy Quran".
The Quran calls upon you not to revile the idols of another religion for it says: revile not those unto whom they pray beside Allah lest they wrongfully revile Allah through ignorance.The Quran expects you to vie with each other in good works and saus for each we have appointed a divine law and a traced out way. Had Allah willed he could have made you one vie one with another in good works".
--Tipu Sultan's (ٹیپو سلطان) Declaration, 1787

"By what right do I commend my men to die for my cause if I should be afraid to lay down my own life ? In the face of a common calamity, is the King to escape sacrifice and suffering ? And why should I prolong the hours then there is no more profit in them ? I should only make myself ridiculous in the eyes of others and of my own - if I cling to life needlessly. Would you advice a Tiger to follow the life-style of a jackal; Would you ?"
-- Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان)

"No man shall be punished save in accordance with law.The law of immemorial custom and as enshrined in our traditions shall be honoured by us. So that people may know the extent and the rigour of the law, as also their rights, duties, obligations and responsibilities. We have decided that codification of law be undertaken... Accordingly, we have established a committee of Ministers.........."
(From Tipu Sultan's (ٹیپو سلطان) proclamation in 1786.)

".....Looting a conquered enemy enriches a few; impoverishes the nations and dishonours the entire army. War must be linked to battlefields. Do not carry it to innocent civilians. Honour their children and the infirm."
(From Tipu Sultan's (ٹیپو سلطان) decree in 17 83, repeated in 1785, 1787).

"......This is a matter in which we must be undeterred and undaunted by financial considerations. Total prohibition is very near to my heart. It is not a question of religion alone. We must think of the economic well being and the moral height of our people and the need to build the character of your youth. I appreciate your concern for immediate financial loss but should we not look ahead? Is the gain to our treasury to be rated higher than the health and morality of our people...."
(Tipu's (ٹیپو سلطان) memorandum to Mir Sadiq,1787
" 'Since receiving that letter, I have heard that frequently such labouris being requinsitioned by Amildars either on their own or at the request or several departments. Therefore, I say this to you, let strict instructions be issued forthwith, for I see in such a practice the beginnings of a system slavery'.'There can be no glory or achievements if the foundation of our places, roads and dams are mingled with the tears and blood of humanity'....."
-- Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان)

"The Ryots of your district, when convicted of offences, are at present fined by the government. It is ordered that in future these offences shall be commuted; and that the offender in place of every pagoda of the fine adjudged against him, shall plant 2 Mango trees, and 2 trees of the large jamun in front of his village and to water and tend them till they are the height of 3 Derras. This order is to be inserted in the Regulation of the districts".
The Mysorean Revenue Regulations : No. 126

"Formerly it has been a practice for the Amil and officers of government and other people ti purchase and sell abandoned girls and orphans children, etc., There are not to sold abroad, or to be budged in the Devasthana but are to be collected together for Government".
-- Regulations No.102-

This dam is being constructed by the Khudadad Government... Any one brings under cultivation any uncultivated land and grows crops, vegetables or fruits by irrigating it with water from this dam will be given all encouragement and concessions.. the newly cultivated land shall belong to the cultivator and his descendants.. and no one shall dispossess him.
Inscription on the foundation stone on K.R.S. Dam on the Cauvery River

"Agriculture is the life-blood of the nation. This land, rich and fertile, will reward those that work on it. Famine and want are either the result of sloth and ignorance or of corruption".
--Tipu's (ٹیپو سلطان) circular to al Amildars, 1788.

"Flogging and whipping - be they to extract confessions or punishment, are repugnant to humanity and reason, They do not achieve their purpose. They degrade the victim. They dishonour the person in whose name they are ordered".
-- Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان).

"To quarrel with our subjects is to go to war with ourselves. They are our shield and our buckles; and it is they who furnish us with all things. Reserve the hostile strength of our empire exclusively for its foreign enemies".
-- Tipu Sultan (ٹیپو سلطان)